Maine at War

A brave Union soldier wins the Medal of Honor at Fort Wagner: Part I

American, Confederate, and state flags flutter above Fort Sumter National Monument at Charleston, S.C. Confederate troops fired on the Union-held fort on April 12, 1861, and the United States plunged into a bloody civil war. For the next four years, Union forces made recapturing Fort Sumter a major goal.
American, Confederate, and state flags flutter above Fort Sumter National Monument at Charleston, S.C. Confederate troops fired on the Union-held fort on April 12, 1861, and the United States plunged into a bloody civil war. For the next four years, Union forces made recapturing Fort Sumter a major goal. Buy Photo
Posted Aug. 21, 2013, at 10:26 a.m.
Last modified March 20, 2014, at 10:32 a.m.
Tour boats ferry visitors to Fort Sumter National Monument, located in Charleston Harbor, S.C. Once three stories tall, the fort’s walls were destroyed by Union artillery fire during the Civil War. Only the lowest wall still stands. In July 1863 Union troops attacked Fort Wagner, located on nearby Morris Island, in an effort to place Federal cannons nearer Fort Sumter.
Tour boats ferry visitors to Fort Sumter National Monument, located in Charleston Harbor, S.C. Once three stories tall, the fort’s walls were destroyed by Union artillery fire during the Civil War. Only the lowest wall still stands. In July 1863 Union troops attacked Fort Wagner, located on nearby Morris Island, in an effort to place Federal cannons nearer Fort Sumter.
A Civil War woodcut depicts Confederate troops evading Union artillery shells being hurled at Fort Wagner on Morris Island in South Carolina in mid-July 1863. Federal artillery and naval cannons bombarded the fort from Saturday, July 11, to Saturday, July 18, in preparation for an infantry assault launched about 7:45 p.m., July 18. The attack failed, and Fort Wagner continued blocking Union attempts to capture Charleston, S.C.
Library of Congress
A Civil War woodcut depicts Confederate troops evading Union artillery shells being hurled at Fort Wagner on Morris Island in South Carolina in mid-July 1863. Federal artillery and naval cannons bombarded the fort from Saturday, July 11, to Saturday, July 18, in preparation for an infantry assault launched about 7:45 p.m., July 18. The attack failed, and Fort Wagner continued blocking Union attempts to capture Charleston, S.C.
Col. Sabine Emery commanded the 9th Maine Infantry Regiment at Morris Island, S.C. He filed with Maine Gov. Abner Coburn a less-than-adequately detailed report about the regiment's performance during two assaults on Fort Wagner.
Maine State Archives
Col. Sabine Emery commanded the 9th Maine Infantry Regiment at Morris Island, S.C. He filed with Maine Gov. Abner Coburn a less-than-adequately detailed report about the regiment's performance during two assaults on Fort Wagner. Buy Photo
In March 1865 George Barnard photographed these civilians after they landed their rowboat on a sand bar adjacent to the battered Fort Sumter at Charleston, S.C. The camera angle is toward the northeast. Union troops had recaptured Fort Sumter a month earlier.
Library of Congress
In March 1865 George Barnard photographed these civilians after they landed their rowboat on a sand bar adjacent to the battered Fort Sumter at Charleston, S.C. The camera angle is toward the northeast. Union troops had recaptured Fort Sumter a month earlier.

For his incredible bravery during the “Glory” assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, S.C., a Union foot soldier later won the Medal of Honor.

And when he died at age 72 on Thursday, Aug. 8, 1912 — more than 49 years after 10 Federal regiments attacked the Confederate fort blocking access to Charleston Harbor — the local newspaper extolled this courageous hero.

Born in Liberty, Charles E. Smith joined Co. I, 9th Maine Infantry Regiment in Bangor on Sept. 9, 1861. Known as the “Bangor Tigers,” Co. I traipsed across the Southeast as the 9th Maine served in Florida, South Carolina, and Virginia.

Smith fought in various battles. Wounded in Virginia in 1864, he rejoined the 9th and finally doffed his uniform in late July 1865.

Afterwards Smith returned to Bangor and “has lived here ever since,” a “Bangor Daily News” reporter reminded readers in a tributary obituary published on Aug. 9, 1912. The old soldier “died Thursday morning at his home on the Fuller road, after a long decline.”

Among his possession was the physical evidence that “Smith, a veteran of the Civil War,” had been “awarded the Congressional medal [of honor] for bravery,” the paper reported. “It was at Fort Wagner … that the battle came wherein he performed the service which won for him the recognition of Congress rarely given.”

Smith had apparently treasured that medal and had often told his wives (he “was married twice”) and his children (he was “survived by four sons and three daughters”) about that wild night action at Fort Wagner. That fight had taken place so long ago and so far away …

Located southeast of Charleston, Morris Island separated the Atlantic Ocean and Charleston Harbor; the Atlantic’s swirling tides met the harbor’s quieter waters at Cummings Point on the island’s northern tip. To prevent Union troops from seizing Morris Island and erecting artillery batteries there to shell Fort Sumter, Confederate engineers built Battery Gregg at Cummings Point and Fort Wagner some 1 to 1½ miles south.

Here Morris Island narrowed sharply between the ocean on the east and the swampy Vincent’s Creek on the west. Using available materials — dirt, palmetto logs, sand, and sand bags — and black slave labor, Southern engineers created a fort measuring 250 yards from creek to beach and 100 yards from south to north.

The walls rose 30 feet above the surrounding terrain. Reinforced with abatises cut from palmetto logs, a moat measuring 10 feet wide and 5 feet deep surrounded the fort.

Commanded by Brig. Gen. William Taliaferro (pronounced “Tauliver“), about 1,700 Confederate soldiers defended Wagner and manned the 14 cannons that targeted potential attackers.

Wagner had the sole purpose of stopping Union infantry from marching to Cummings Point and attacking Battery Gregg. From that position Federal gunners would enjoy an unfettered view of Confederate-held Fort Sumter.

Throughout the war senior Union officials, including President Abraham Lincoln and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, fixated on recapturing Sumter. In early summer 1863, the direct route apparently lay across Morris Island’s sandy and swampy wastes.

“Capture Wagner” summarized the order given to Brig. Gen. Truman Seymour, whose division went ashore on nearby Folly Island on Friday, July 3. Assigned to that division were brigades commanded by Brig. Gen. George Crockett Strong and Col. Haldimand S. Putnam.

Strong’s brigade included five infantry regiments: the 6th Connecticut, the 3rd New Hampshire, the 48th New York, the 76th Pennsylvania, and the 9th Maine, led by Col. Sabine Emery, a teacher in Eastport when the war began.

Before Seymour could capture Fort Wagner, he had to land on Morris Island. At 4 a.m. on Friday, July 10, four Navy ironclads sailed close to the island. “As soon as the Monitors could get sufficiently near to fire with effect, they opened with shell upon the Confederate works,” wrote Admiral David Dixon Porter in “The Naval History of the Civil War.”

At 5 a.m. Union artillery on Folly Island started shelling Confederate defensive positions strung from Fort Wagner south to Lighthouse Inlet separating Folly and Morris Islands.

By 8 a.m. Strong’s men started crossing Lighthouse Inlet in small boats to land on Morris Island. There they energetically pitched into enemy positions. “The two columns … moved forward, under a lively discharge of shell, grape[shot], and canister, converging toward the works nearest the southern extremity of” Morris Island, Strong reported.

His men advanced “along its commanding ridge and eastern coast” to capture “eight batteries, of one heavy gun each … besides two batteries” containing between them “three 10-inch seacoast mortars.”

“As the troops moved rapidly along the beach, the iron-clads steamed parallel” to the shore and hurled “shells in every direction … to clear away any bodies of [enemy] troops” that might threaten the Union advance, Porter wrote.

Ashore, the 9th Maine boys plunged into the thick of the fighting. “I have to speak to you in the highest terms of both officers and men of my Regiment in the various engagements on Morris Island,” Emery wrote Maine Gov. Abner Coburn on Monday, Aug. 10.

“At the capture of the southernmost point” of the island, “two companies of the 9th drove the 21st South Carolina Regiment from their Rifle pits — taking a number of them prisoners and capturing their colors — the only stand of [enemy] colors taken on the island,” Emery stated.

The honor of taking the South Carolinian flags fell to Co. I, commanded by Lt. Billings Brastow of Brewer. Charles E. Smith participated in the fighting.

Emery planned to ship the flags to Augusta, but Seymour diverted them to his tent.

Advancing three miles north after landing on Morris Island, the Union troops camped for the night — and Strong attacked Fort Wager on Saturday, July 11. “A column of assault was formed before daybreak, this morning, for an attack upon Fort Wagner,” he wrote Seymour later that day.

Followed by the 76th Pennsylvania and the 9th Maine “in the order named,” four 7th Connecticut Infantry companies led the attack, with the 3rd and 7th New Hampshire infantry regiments serving in reserve.

The Connecticut boys intended “to dash forward with a shout when the enemy should open fire, and the other battalions were directed to maintain their respective intervals,” Strong wrote. A heavy fog initially obscured the attackers, and the Connecticut men reached and scaled Fort Wagner’s walls while “under a fire heavy fire of artillery and musketry.”

The Union troops reached “the top of the parapet” and bayoneted “two of the enemy’s gunners,” Strong informed Seymour.

Behind the 7th Connecticut and “within a range of 200 yards“ of Fort Wager, “the Seventy-sixth Pennsylvania halted and lay down upon the ground” after “the enemy opened simultaneously along his whole line,” Strong wrote. “A few moments” later the Pennsylvanians “moved gallantly forward, some of them to the ditch (moat),” but the brief “halt lost the battle, for the interval was lost.”

Defenders ejected the Connecticut boys from Wagner’s parapet. “The whole column, including the Ninth Maine, which had reached the ditch on the left, gave way and retreated from the field,” Strong reported.

The Union troops suffered 339 casualties: 49 killed, 123 wounded, and 167 missing.

Confederate troops reportedly lost 12 men killed.

Fort Wagner would be a tough nut to crack.

Next week: A brave soldier wins the Medal of Honor at Fort Wagner: Part II.

Brian Swartz can be reached at visionsofmaine@tds.net or visit his blog at http:maineatwar.bangordailynews.com.

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