— An Olympic sport that combines cross-country skiing with small-calibre rifle target shooting, biathlon athletes (biathletes) must display great physical stamina and strength, but must also display a capacity for concentration and technical abilities in two distinct sports.
— In a biathlon competition, the biathlete skis distances varying from 6 to 20 kilometers and stops at the shooting range to shoot two or four times, with both the ski distance and number of shooting bouts depending on the type of competition in question.
— The shooting distance is always 50 meters and five rounds are fired in each bout at five targets, except in the relay competition in which the competitor has three spare rounds for each bout. There are two shooting positions, prone and standing, which are done in a sequence depending on the competition.
— Target diameters are very small, 115 millimeters for standing and 45 mm for prone. During the entire competition, from start to finish, the clock is running for the competitor — there is no timeout for shooting.
— Penalties for missed targets are imposed either as one minute of added time per target for the individual competition or as a 150-meter penalty loop — done immediately after each bout of shooting — for all other competitions.
— In essence, the competitor starts at the start line, skis one course loop (length depending on the competition), comes to the range and shoots, skis another loop, shoots, and so on, and then finishes with a ski loop to the finish line after the last bout of shooting.
— For the Individual and Sprint competitions, starts are done with one competitor at a time with a 30-second interval. In a Pursuit competition, starts are based on time intervals from the qualifying competition, and for the Mass Start, all competitors start together simultaneously.
— In the Relay competition, the first members of all teams start simultaneously and after completing their part, tag the next member to start them on their way.
— In principle, throughout the competition, the biathletes are responsible for their own actions, such as selecting a shooting lane in the Individual, Sprint and Pursuit competitions (assigned in the Relay and Mass Start first shooting by start numbers), and for counting the number of missed plates on their targets and then skiing the correct number of penalty loops. However, they must always follow the stipulations of the event and competition rules.
— Mixed Relays are also held; in these, female biathletes have to complete the first and the second rounds of the relay, respectively, while the third and fourth relay rounds are each completed by a male biathlete. In other respects, the procedure for the Mixed Relay competition is as in the above description.
Source: International Biathlon Union